Victoria Cross Recipients



Michaëlle Jean (Left), Governor General and Commander-in-Chief of Canada, and Stephen Joseph Harper (Right), Prime Minister of Canada, unveil the Canadian Victoria Cross, Rideau Hall, 16 May 2008.


Established in 1856, the Victoria Cross has been awarded to service personnel for extraordinary valour and devotion to duty while facing a hostile force. Between 1858 and 1881 the Victoria Cross could also be awarded for actions taken “under circumstances of extreme danger” not in the face of the enemy. Six people were awarded Victoria Crosses under this clause – one Irish man in 1866 for actions taken during the Fenian raids; five (a Canadian, three Irish and an English man) for a single incident in 1867 during the Andaman Islands Expedition. In 1881, VC regulations were amended to only allow acts “in the presence of the enemy”.

Since 1993, Canadians have no longer been eligible for the Victoria Cross: that medal has been superseded by the Canadian Victoria Cross – of equal honour, but yet to be awarded. The scroll of the Canadian medal differs in that the inscription is in Latin rather than English; by using a language that is an ancestor of French and has greatly contributed to the development of English, the medal avoids linguistic discrimination between Canada’s two official languages. The fleur-de-lis, in heraldry long associated with the French crown has been added at the end each scroll. The actual metal of the medal is a distinct Canadian composition.

NameDate of ActionConflictUnitPerpetuating UnitPlace of ActionProvince of Origin
Wallace Algie1918First World War20th Battalion, CEFThe Queen's York Rangers (1st American Regiment) (RCAC)Cambrai, FranceOntario
William Barker1918First World WarNo. 201 Squadron RAFNoneForêt de Mormal, FranceManitoba
Colin Barron1917First World War3rd Battalion, CEFRoyal Regiment of CanadaPasschendaele, BelgiumOntario
Ian Bazalgette1944*Second World WarNo. 115 Squadron RAFNo. 115 Squadron RAFTrossy St. Maximin, FranceAlberta
Edward Bellew1915First World War7th Battalion, CEFBritish Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own)Kerselaere, BelgiumBritish Columbia
Philip Bent1917First World WarLeicestershire RegimentB Company, Second Battalion, Royal Anglian RegimentPolygon Wood, BelgiumNova Scotia
William Bishop1917First World WarNo. 60 Squadron RAFNo. 60 Squadron RAFCambrai, FranceOntario
Rowland Bourke1918First World WarRoyal Naval Volunteer ReserveRoyal Naval Volunteer ReserveOstend, BelgiumBritish Columbia
Alexander Brereton1918First World War8th Battalion, CEFRoyal Winnipeg RiflesAmiens, FranceManitoba
Jean Brillant1918*First World War22nd Battalion, CEFRoyal 22nd RegimentMeharicourt, FranceQuebec
Harry Brown1917*First World War10th Battalion, CEFRoyal Winnipeg Rifles and Calgary HighlandersLoos, FranceOntario
Hugh Cairns1918*First World War46th Battalion, CEFSaskatchewan DragoonsValenciennes, FranceSaskatchewan
Frederick Campbell1915*First World War1st Battalion, CEFRoyal Canadian RegimentGivenchy, FranceOntario
William Clark-Kennedy1918First World War24th Battalion, CEFVictoria Rifles of CanadaFresnes, FranceQuebec
Leo Clarke1916*First World War2nd Battalion, CEFGovernor General's Foot GuardsPozières, FranceManitoba
Hampden Cockburn1900Second Boer WarRoyal Canadian DragoonsRoyal Canadian DragoonsKomati River, South AfricaOntario
Robert Combe1917*First World War27th Battalion, CEFRoyal Winnipeg RiflesAcheville, FranceSaskatchewan
Frederick Coppins1918First World War27th Battalion, CEFRoyal Winnipeg RiflesHackett Woods, FranceManitoba
Aubrey Cosens1945*Second World WarQueen's Own Rifles of CanadaQueen's Own Rifles of CanadaMooshof, GermanyOntario
John Croak1918*First World War13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), CEFBlack Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of CanadaAmiens, FranceNova Scotia
Robert Cruickshank1918First World WarLondon RegimentLondon RegimentJordan, PalestineManitoba
David Currie1944Second World War29th Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment (South Alberta Regiment)South Alberta Light HorseBattle of Falaise, FranceSaskatchewan
Raymond de Montmorency1898Battle of Omdurman, Sudan Campaign21st Lancers17th/21st LancersOmdurman, SudanQuebec
Edmund De Wind1918*First World WarRoyal Irish RiflesRoyal Irish Regiment (1992)Groagie, FranceAlberta
Thomas Dinesen1918First World War42nd Battalion, CEFBlack Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of CanadaParvillers, Francen/a
Campbell Douglas1867Bravery at Sea, Andaman Islands Expedition24th Regiment of FootSouth Wales BorderersLittle Andaman, IndiaOntario
Alexander Dunn1854Battle of Balaclava, Crimean War33rd Regiment of FootYorkshire RegimentBalaclava, CrimeaOntario
Frederick Fisher1915*First World War13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada)Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of CanadaSt. Julien, BelgiumOntario
Gordon Flowerdew1918*First World WarLord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)Bois de Moreuil, FranceBritish Columbia
John Foote1942Second World War1st Battalion, The Royal Hamilton Light InfantryRoyal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment)Dieppe, FranceOntario
Herman Good1918First World War13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), CEFBlack Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of CanadaHangard Wood, FranceNew Brunswick
Robert Gray1945*Second World WarFleet Air ArmFleet Air ArmHonshū, JapanBritish Columbia
Milton Gregg1918First World WarRoyal Canadian RegimentRoyal Canadian RegimentCambrai, FranceNew Brunswick
Frederick Hall1915*First World War8th Battalion (90th Winnipeg Rifles), CEFRoyal Winnipeg RiflesYpres, BelgiumManitoba
William Hall1857Indian Rebellion of 1857HMS ShannonnoneLucknow, IndiaNova Scotia
Robert Hanna1917First World War29th Battalion, CEFBritish Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own)Lens, FranceBritish Columbia
Frederick Harvey1917First World WarLord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)Guvencourt, FranceAlberta
Frederick Hobson1917*First World War20th Battalion, CEFQueen's York Rangers (1st American Regiment) (RCAC)Lens, FranceOntario
Charles Hoey1944Second World WarRoyal LincolnshireRoyal Anglian RegimentNgakyedauk Pass, Bruma (Now Myanmar)British Columbia
Edward Holland1900Second Boer WarRoyal Canadian DragoonsRoyal Canadian DragoonsKomati River, South AfricaOntario
Thomas Holmes1917First World War4th Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion, CEFGovernor General's Horse GuardsPasschendaele, BelgiumOntario
Samuel Honey1918*First World War78th Battalion, CEFWinnipeg GrenadiersBourlon Wood, FranceOntario
David Hornell1944Second World WarNo. 162 Squadron RCAFFaroes, AtlanticOntario
Bellenden Hutcheson1918First World War75th Battalion, CEFToronto Scottish Regiment (Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother's Own)Arras, FranceOntario
Joseph Kaeble1918*First World War22nd Battalion, CEFRoyal 22e RégimentNeuville-Vitasse, FranceQuebec
George Kerr1918First World War3rd Battalion, CEFQueen's Own Rifles of Canada and Royal Regiment of CanadaBourlon Wood, FranceOntario
John Kerr1916First World War49th Battalion, CEFLoyal Edmonton Regiment (4th Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry)Courcelette, FranceNova Scotia, Alberta
Cecil Kinross1917First World War49th Battalion, CEFLoyal Edmonton Regiment (4th Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry)Passchendaele, BelgiumAlberta
Arthur Knight1918*First World War10th Battalion, CEFRoyal Winnipeg Rifles and Calgary HighlandersVillers-les-Cagnicourt, FranceSaskatchewan
Filip Konowal1917First World War47th Battalion, CEFRoyal Westminster RegimentLens, Francen/a
Okill Learmonth1917*First World War2nd Battalion, CEFGovernor General's Foot GuardsLoos, FranceQuebec
Graham Lyall1918First World War102nd Battalion, CEFBritish Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own)Cambrai, FranceOntario
Thain MacDowell1917First World War38th Battalion, CEFCameron Highlanders of Ottawa (Duke of Edinburgh's Own)Vimy Ridge, FranceOntario
John MacGregor1918First World War2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion, CEFBritish Columbia DragoonsCambrai, FranceBritish Columbia
John Mahony1944Second World WarWestminster Regiment (Motor)Royal Westminster RegimentRiver Melfa, ItalyBritish Columbia
George McKean1918First World War14th Battalion, CEFRoyal Montreal RegimentGavrelle Sector, FranceAlberta
Hugh McKenzie1917*First World WarCanadian Machine Gun CorpsRoyal Canadian Armoured CorpsMeetsceele Spur, BelgiumOntario, Albert
Alan McLeod1918*First World WarNo. 2 Squadron RFCNo. 2 Squadron RAFAlbert, FranceManitoba
William Merrifield1918First World War4th Battalion, CEF56th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA, Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment)Abancourt, FranceOntario
Charles Merritt1942Second World WarSouth Saskatchewan RegimentSouth Saskatchewan RegimentDieppe, FranceBritish Columbia
William Metcalf1918First World War16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEFCanadian Scottish RegimentArras, Francen/a
William Milne1917*First World War16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEFCanadian Scottish RegimentThelus, FranceSaskatchewan
Harry Miner1918*First World War58th Battalion, CEFRoyal Regiment of CanadaDemuin, FranceOntario
Coulson Norman Mitchell1918First World War4th Battalion Canadian EngineersCanal de L'Escaut, FranceManitoba
George Mullin1917First World WarPrincess Patricia's Canadian Light InfantryPrincess Patricia's Canadian Light InfantryPasschendaele, BelgiumSaskatchewan
Andrew Mynarski1944*Second World WarNo. 419 Squadron RCAF419 Tactical Fighter Training SquadronCambrai, FranceManitoba
William Nickerson1900Second Boer WarRoyal Army Medical CorpsWakkerstroom, South AfricaNew Brunswick
Claude Nunney1918*First World War38th Battalion, CEFCameron Highlanders of Ottawa (Duke of Edinburgh's Own)Drocourt-Queant Line, FranceOntario
Christopher O'Kelly1917First World War52nd BattalionLake Superior Scottish RegimentPasschendaele, BelgiumManitoba
Michael O'Leary1915First World WarIrish GuardsIrish GuardsCuinchy, FranceSaskatchewan
Michael O'Rourke1917First World War7th Battalion, CEFBritish Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own)Hill 70, FranceBritish Columbia
John Osborn1941Second World WarWinnipeg GrenadiersWinnipeg GrenadiersMount Butler, Hong KongManitoba
John Pattison1917First World War50th Battalion, CEFKing's Own Calgary Regiment (RCAC)Vimy Ridge, FranceAlberta
George Pearkes1917First World War5th Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion, CEFSherbrooke HussarsPasschendaele, BelgiumYukon
Cyrus Peck1918First World War16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEFCanadian Scottish RegimentCagnicourt, FranceNew Brunswick
Frederick Peters1942Second World WarHMS WalneyOran, AlgeriaP.E.I.
Walter Rayfield1918First World War7th Battalion, CEFBritish Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own)Arras, FranceOntario
Herbert Reade1857Indian Rebellion of 185761st Regiment of FootThe RiflesDelhi, IndiaOntario
Arthur Richardson1900Second Boer WarStrathcona's HorseLord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)Wolwespruit, South AfricaSaskatchewan
James Richardson1916*First World War16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEFCanadian Scottish RegimentSomme, FranceBritish Columbia
James Peter Robertson1917*First World War27th Battalion, CEFRoyal Winnipeg RiflesPasschendaele, BelgiumNova Scotia, Alberta
Charles Rutherford1918First World War5th Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion, CEFSherbrooke HussarsMonchy, FranceOntario
Francis Scrimger1915First World WarCanadian Army Medical CorpsSt. Julien, BelgiumQuebec
Robert Shankland1917First World War43rd Battalion, CEFQueen's Own Cameron Highlanders of CanadaPasschendaele, BelgiumManitoba
Ellis Sifton1917*First World War18th Battalion, CEFEssex and Kent ScottishNeuville-St.-Vaast, FranceOntario
John Sinton1916First World WarIndian Medical ServiceOrah Ruins, MesopotamiaBritish Columbia
Ernest Smith1944Second World WarSeaforth Highlanders of CanadaSeaforth Highlanders of CanadaRiver Savio, ItalyBritish Columbia
Robert Spall1918*First World WarPrincess Patricia's Canadian Light InfantryPrincess Patricia's Canadian Light InfantryParvillers, FranceManitoba
Harcus Strachan1917First World WarFort Garry HorseFort Garry HorseMasnières, FranceManitoba, Alberta
James Tait1918*First World War78th Battalion, CEFWinnipeg GrenadiersAmiens, FranceManitoba
Frederick Tilston1945Second World WarEssex Scottish RegimentEssex and Kent ScottishHochwald Forest, GermanyOntario
Frederick Topham1945Second World War1st Canadian Parachute BattalionRhine, GermanyOntario
Paul Triquet1943Second World WarRoyal 22e RégimentRoyal 22e RégimentCasa Berardi, ItalyQuebec
Richard Turner1900Second Boer WarRoyal Canadian DragoonsRoyal Canadian DragoonsKomati River, South AfricaQuebec
Thomas Wilkinson1916*First World WarLoyal North Lancashire RegimentLoyal Regiment (North Lancashire)La Boiselle, FranceBritish Columbia
John Young1918First World War87th Battalion, CEFCanadian Grenadier GuardsDury-Arras Sector, FranceQuebec
Raphael Zengel1918First World War5th Battalion, CEFNorth Saskatchewan RegimentWarvillers, FranceSaskatchewan